Analyzing Landuse Types Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Architecture Sector in Istanbul


  • Mehmet Ronael
  • Gülden Demet Oruç


Creative Industries, Architecture Sector, Location Distribution, Istanbul, Network Analysis


From the beginning of the 21st century, the creative economy has arisen in European and American countries; besides, this new system started to shape the social, physical, economic, and cultural patterns of cities. In Turkey, encouraging the creative economy to participate in the global market became an important concern of policy-makers especially after the 1990s, and Istanbul has a specific role as the creative capital of Turkey in this competitive atmosphere. Also, the architecture sector that consists of the value-adding process of art and knowledge is one of the most developing creative industries in the world; moreover, this sector generally concentrates more in Istanbul compared to other cities of Turkey. When the spatial distribution of all creative industries in Istanbul is examined, it is clear that they densify in the central districts of Istanbul; however, they also started to expand towards the peripheral districts especially after 2009. This tendency shows itself also in the architecture sector. Therefore, the main motivation of this study is exploring the spatial distribution of the architecture sector in Istanbul. For this purpose, the research method contains two steps. Firstly, the map for the distribution of architecture sector in the city is produced through certain addresses of architecture, urban planning, and landscape architecture firms by using the geocoding method. Secondly, the spatial relationship between locations of firms and determined land use types that are proximity to recreation areas, transportation routes, public establishments, and universities are analyzed through the Network Analysis in ArcGIS.


Metrics Loading ...


Andersson, D. E., & Mellander, C. (2011). Analysing Creative Cities. In Handbook of Creative Cities(pp. 3-13). doi:

Atkinson, R., & Easthope, H. (2009). The Consequences of the Creative Class: The Pursuit of Creativity Strategies in Australias Cities. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research,33(1), 64-79. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2427.2009.00837.x

Brown, J., & Mczyski, M. (2009). Complexcities: Locational Choices of Creative Knowledge Workers. Built Environment,35(2), 238-252. doi:10.2148/benv.35.2.238

Department of Culture, Media and Sport. (1998). Creative Industries Mapping Document.

London: Department of Culture, Media and Sport. Retrieved from documents-1998

Denning, S. (2012). Don't Diss the Paradigm Shift in Management: It's Happening! Retrieved from paradigm-shift-in-management/#30eef80e1e14

European Commission. (2008). NACE Rev.2 Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community. Retrieved from

Flew, T. (2002). Beyond ad hocery: Defining Creative Industries. In Second International Conference on Cultural Policy Research. Retrieved from

Flew, T. (2012). Origins of Creative Industries Policy. In The Creative Industries: Culture and Policy. SAGE Publications.

Florida, R. (2002). The Rise of the Creative Class: And How It's Transforming Work, Leisure, Community, and Everyday Life. S.l.: Basic Books.

Florida, R. (2003). Cities and Creative Class. City&Community,2(1). Retrieved from and the Creative Class.pdf.

Florida, R. L. (2005). The flight of the creative class. New York, NY: Harper Business.

He, J. L., & Gebhardt, H. (2014). Space of creative industries: a case study of spatial characteristics of creative clusters in Shanghai. European planning studies, 22(11), 2351-2368.

Howkins, J. (2001). The creative economy: How people make money from ideas. London: Allen Lane.

Hutton, T. A. (2004). The new economy of the inner city. Cities,21(2), 89-108. Retrieved from

IBB (İstanbul Metropolitan Municipality). (2009). Plan Kararları ve Gerekçeleri. İstanbul: İstanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi.

Istanbul Development Agency. (2014). Istanbul Regional Plan. İstanbul: İstanbul Kalkınma Ajansı. Retrieved from


Kang, C. D. (2010). The impact of bus rapid transit on location choice of creative industries and employment density in Seoul, Korea. International Journal of Urban Sciences, 14(2), 123-151.

Kelly, K. (1998). New Rules for the New Economy. New York, USA: Penguin Group. Retrieved from

Khoo, S. L., Badarulzaman, N., Samat, N., & Dawood, S. R. (2016). How possible is a creative city in Penang? An analysis of architects’ perceptions about creativity and quality of place. Creative Industries Journal,10(1), 3-20. doi:10.1080/17510694.2016.1247625

Landry, C. (2000). The creative city: a toolkit for urban innovators. London: Earthscan.

Landry, C., & Bianchini, F. (1994). The creative city: Key themes & issues. London: DEMOS. Retrieved from

Lorenzen, M., & Frederiksen, L. (2008). Why do Cultural Industries Cluster? Localization, Urbanization, Products and Projects. Creative Cities, Cultural Clusters and Local Economic Development,155-179. doi:10.4337/9781847209948.00015

Liu, H., & Silva, E. A. (2014). Creative industries urban model: structure and functioning. Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Urban Design and Planning, 168(2), 88-100.

Liu, H., Silva, E. A., & Wang, Q. (2015). The development of creative industries and urban land use: Revisit the interactions from complexity perspective. In Creative Industries and Urban Spatial Structure (pp. 15-41). Springer, Cham.

Machado, A. F., Simões, R. F., & Diniz, S. C. (2013). Urban amenities and the development of creative clusters: the case of Brazil. Current Urban Studies, 1(04), 92.

Ministry of Development. (2013). Tenth Development Plan. Ankara: Ministry of Development.

Retrieved from

Mommaas, H. (2004). Cultural Clusters and the Post-industrial City: Towards the Remapping of Urban Cultural Policy. Urban Studies,41(3), 507-532. doi:10.1080/0042098042000178663

Montgomery, J. (1990). Cities and the art of cultural planning. Planning Practice and Research,5(3), 17-24. doi:10.1080/02697459008722772

Montgomery, J. (2003). Cultural Quarters as Mechanisms for Urban Regeneration. Part 1: Conceptualising Cultural Quarters. Planning, Practice & Research, 18(4), 293-306. Retrieved from

Murphy, E., & Redmond, D. (2009). The role of ‘hard’and ‘soft’factors for accommodating creative knowledge: insights from Dublin's ‘creative class’. Irish Geography, 42(1), 69- 84.

Musterd, S., & Deurloo, R. (2006). Amsterdam and the preconditions for a creative knowledge city. Tijdschrift voor economische en sociale geografie, 97(1), 80-94.

Ronael, M. (2019). The Effects of Place Quality on Location Choices of Creative Industries: Architecture Sector in Istanbul. (Unpublished master's thesis). Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul.

Ronael, M., & Oruc, G. D. (2019, July). The Impact of Place Quality on Architecture Clusters in Istanbul. 26th APDR Congress Evidence-based territorial policymaking: formulation, implementation and evaluation of policy, University of Aveiro, Portugal. Retrieved from

Ronael, M., & Oruç, G.D. (2020). Bir Yaratıcı Sektör Olarak Mimarlık Faaliyetlerinin İstanbul’daki Mekansal Dağılımı., 69.

Roodhouse, S. (2009). Universities and the creative industries. The journal of arts management, law, and society, 39(3), 187-199.

Rosselló, P., & Wright, S. (Eds.). (2010). Mapping the Creative Industries: A Toolkit(British Council’s Creative And Cultural Economy, Publication). London, UK: British Council. Retrieved from

Sands, G., & Reese, L. A. (2008). Cultivating the creative class: And what about Nanaimo?

Economic Development Quarterly,22(1). Retrieved from 09822#

Sharp, J., Pollock, V., & Paddison, R. (2005). Just Art for a Just City: Public Art and Social Inclusion in Urban Regeneration. Urban Studies,42(5-6), 1001-1023. doi:10.1080/00420980500106963

Trip, J. J. (2007). Assessing Quality of Place: A Comparative Analysis of Amsterdam and Rotterdam. Journal of Urban Affairs,29(5), 501-517. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 9906.2007.00362.x

Zheng, J. (2010). The “entrepreneurial state” in “creative industry cluster” development in Shanghai. Journal of urban affairs, 32(2), 143-170.




How to Cite

Ronael, M. ., & Demet Oruç, G. . (2020). Analyzing Landuse Types Affecting the Spatial Distribution of Architecture Sector in Istanbul. ICONARCH International Congress of Architecture and Planning, (Iconarch -IV Proceeding Book), 319–339. Retrieved from



SESSION 3A Theme: Resilience, Sustainability and Quality & Economy, Geography and Region